Let's say no to rodents
Rodent control is an urgent problem for any gardener. No matter how you poison them, you poison them, you catch them with traps - but they don’t care! They disappear for a couple of months, but then return in the same amount and with the same appetite.
Let's look at various methods of dealing with these pests.
Rodents (lat.Rodentia) - The most numerous detachment of mammals. Represented by over 1700 species and inhabit a variety of living spaces. Their size can range from 5.5 (mouse-baby) to 135 centimeters (capybara), although the majority is in the range from 8 to 35 centimeters.
1 - red vole (Clethrionomys glareolus). Body length 8-11 cm, tail length 4-6 cm; red fur. The vole nest is located in a hole under the surface of the earth or in a shelter on the ground. The red-backed vole eats plants, seeds and invertebrates, damages the bark of young trees. Brings 3-5 cubs up to 3 times a year.
2 - arable vole (Microtus agrestis). Body length 10-12 cm, tail length 3-5 cm. The fur is brownish, more authentic and friable than that of the common vole. Arable vole makes its tunnels in the thick grass. It feeds mainly on plants; damages the bark of young trees.
3 - common vole (Microtus arvalis). Body length 9-12 cm, tail length up to 4 cm; the fur is gray. It lives in colonies, at a shallow depth it digs a complex ramified system of moves with a nesting chamber and pantries. It feeds on plants and grain. It multiplies rapidly: in the summer every 3 weeks it brings up 13 cubs, which, while still feeding on mother's milk, can already mate. Many voles destroy predatory animals and birds.
4 - water vole, or water rat (Arvicola terrestris). The largest of the voles: body length 12-20 cm, tail length 6-13 cm; the color of the fur is variable (there are also black individuals). Lives in gardens, in fields and meadows, by the water (swims and dives well). It feeds on green parts of plants, seeds and root crops, roots of young trees. A wide network of water rat moves with a nesting chamber and pantries is located directly below the surface of the soil. The female 3-5 times a year brings up to 14 cubs.
5 - yellow-throated mouse (Apodemus flavicollis). Body length 10-12 cm, tail usually longer than body - up to 13 cm. A yellow spot is located in the lower part of the body. Active at night; Climbs well, runs away in big jumps. It builds a nest in a hole or in a hollow of a tree. It feeds on plants and their seeds, insects.
6 - forest mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus). Body length 9-11 cm, tail length 7-10 cm. Lives in forests, gardens, meadows and fields, digs a deep hole. The forest mouse moves irregularly, as does the yellow-throated mouse. It feeds on the green parts of plants and their seeds, insects.
7 - field mouse (Apodemus agrarius). Body length 8-12 cm, tail length 7-9 cm; a black stripe on the back is characteristic. Lives in forests, gardens, fields; found in barns in winter. It feeds on plants and earthworms. The female gives birth to 6-7 cubs up to 4 times a year.
8 - house mouse (Mus musculus). Body length 8-11 cm, tail length 8-9 cm; has a strong specific smell. Lives in large families. It is found in gardens and fields, in homes. Eats almost any food - both plant and animal. Builds a nest from various burnt materials. In just three weeks, he carries up to 8 cubs; gives a lot of litters per year.
9 - gray rat, or pasyuk (Rattus norvegicus). Body length 19-27 cm, tail length 13-23 cm; the tail is always shorter than the body. Sometimes there are black pasyuki. Lives in homes, gardens, ponds, etc. Pasyuk perfectly swims and dives, a network of shallow burrows digs in the ground. The gray rat is multinivorous, feeds on both plants and animals; carrier of many dangerous diseases. Deprived of the opportunity to escape, it attacks even large animals and people. It gives birth 2-3 times a year for 6-9 cubs.
10 - black rat (Rattus rattus). Body length 16-24 cm, tail length 19-24 cm; tail is longer than body. The fur is grayish brown or black. He climbs well, lives in houses; in summer, builds nests on trees in nature. It feeds mainly on plant foods. It reproduces less actively than the pasuk.
11 - European mole, or common mole (Talpa europaea). Body length 13-15 cm, tail length up to 3 cm. Velvet black fur, tiny eyes, excellent sense of smell. Lives in almost any soil except dry sandy and too damp. Very gluttonous, in the underground passages eats larvae of harmful insects and catches a variety of invertebrates, bringing this benefit. He also feeds on earthworms. He doesn’t gnaw the plants, but digs their roots, making his moves in the soil.
Methods of struggle
Among the various physical methods of killing rodents, the most common is the use of traps and traps, which can be divided into two main types:
- live-traps - traps, vertices
- slayers - dice and traps
Traps and traps are used both indoors and in undeveloped areas.. Capture of rodents by arc traps is fundamentally different from trapping with baits in that it is based not on attracting animals, but on using the stereotype of their movements in the places they visit most often.
This method of killing rodents is safe for people and pets. The positive aspects include the fact that the results of the use of fishing gears (that is, effectiveness is detected (unlike chemical and bacteriological agents) immediately. Due to its objectivity and visibility, it is used not only to kill rodents, but also when examining objects with the aim of establishing the presence of rodents and their species.
The use of traps is not very suitable for destroying a rodent population, but it is suitable for eliminating a small number of individuals who did not take the poisoned bait. The most effective trapping of rodents can be carried out if they are tamed for a long time to unguarded traps, updating the bait for 7-10 or more days, and then they are alerted and in a short time to catch.
Among other physical means of destruction, the use of electrical
devices - "electroderatizers". Apparently, to protect against rodents objects where there are no people and animals, such electrical devices can be useful.
Of particular interest are mechanical foams proposed by DF Trakhanov (1973), which are used without poisons and cause strangulation of the animal within one minute. This method, in his opinion, is suitable for processing holes instead of toxic gases.
The mechanical means of extermination should also include the use of sticky masses for catching rodents. It is possible to recommend the use of EFM (environmentally friendly mousetraps). A mechanical means of fighting rodents is also filling their holes with water. This technique, in particular, is used to kill gophers. In this case, the greatest success is achieved by pouring boiling water.
Unfortunately, all the methods known to date for exterminating rodents are inferior in their effectiveness not only to chemical, but also to biological methods of control, since they do not cause mass death of animals.
The undoubted advantage of the physical method of deratization is a high degree of selectivity in relation to a certain type, and besides, it does not lead to environmental pollution by pesticides. In general, the physical method is recommended to be combined with chemical and biological methods.
At the same time, the method is widely used at facilities in such works as determining the effectiveness of measures taken and taking into account the number of rodents.
The use of ultrasonic rodent repellents is the most modern highly effective method of controlling rodents. For each type of rodent, a device has been developed that operates at a frequency specific to each animal. Devices do not harm people and pets.
1. The use of special tools (traps, tops, etc.). The method has a fairly low percentage of efficiency and a very high level of injuries. Since the use of traps requires certain skills, in addition, rodents know about the tricks of people (this is the most ancient method) and carefully bypass the exposed crush.
2. Using sticky surfaces and EFM traps
Traps do not contain toxic substances and are absolutely harmless to humans. The method is reliable and efficient. Glue traps are made taking into account the biological characteristics of rodents. They have a sufficiently thin surface so that when placed around the perimeter of the premises they do not stand out too much from the surface of the floor, false ceiling, etc. But the glue used has such viscous and durable properties that, stepping on a trap, the rodent does not have a chance to break away or run away with it.
The essence of the chemical method of deratization is the poisoning of rodents with toxic substances - rodenticides (from lat. rodentis - gnawing and caedo - kill). These substances act upon entry into the intestines or lungs (fumigants).
The forms of application of deratization preparations are diverse. These can be powders consisting of one preparation or a mixture of poison with various inert fillers (talc, starch, road dust, etc.), solutions and suspensions, grease-based pastes, waxed briquettes, biscuits, crackers and other
By the nature of the origin, poisons are divided into plant and synthetic. Numerous preparations of synthetic origin are most widely used around the world, their main advantage is the ability to obtain large quantities of a standard and stable preparation, the relative availability and low cost of raw materials, and their high effect. All synthetic rodepticides are combined into two large groups, each of which is characterized by the specific action of the drugs included in it on the animal organism: these are drugs of acute and chronic action (anticoagulants).
Acute poisons cause the death of rodents after a single eating of the bait. These include: sodium cremifluoride, barium carbonate, arsenic compounds, yellow phosphorus, zinc phosphide, thallium sulfate and other inorganic compounds, as well as organic plant poisons: strychnine, scylliroside (a preparation of red sea onion), sodium fluoroacetate (1080); organic synthetic poisons: rats, thiosemicarbazide, promurite, fluoroacetamide, barium fluoroacetate, monofluorine, glyptor, shoxin (norbomide), vacor (RH = 787), etc.
In most cases, these poisons begin to cause symptoms of poisoning from the first hour after ingestion. However, with the rapid development of the poisoning process (short latent period), there is also the occurrence of wariness in rodents, the refusal to re-eat the bait with poison, which caused poisoning, or even with any other drug. In order to overcome the reaction of secondary avoidance of poisoned bait, you should alternate the food base, attractants, as well as poisons. The best result of a bait with poisons of acute action is given in those cases when rodents are first offered food without poison for some time, and then the same food with poison. This technique is called pre-feeding..
Of the large group of poisons of acute action, zinc phosphide (ZmPa), which, when it enters the stomach, reacts with hydrochloric acid and releases phosphorous hydrogen (PH3), penetrates the blood, brain and acts on the respiratory center, is most common. With the recommended instruction, its concentration (3%) in the bait, this poison is relatively less dangerous than many others, and does not cause secondary poisoning in predators who have eaten poisoned rodents.
Poisons of chronic (cumulative) action are characterized by a long latent period, the slow development of the poisoning process with the regular introduction of very small doses into the body. These drugs accumulate (accumulate) in the body of the animal and gradually lead to significant biochemical and pathological changes and death. The largest share among chronic poisons is made up of blood anticoagulants from the coumarin group: warfarin (zoocoumaria), coumachlor, dicumarol, etc. and indadione: diphenacin, phentolacin, etc.
The discovery in 1942 of a compound of coumarin, and later of the indadione, made a real revolution in deratization. With a single ingestion of small amounts of these poisons into the rodent, the symptoms of poisoning practically do not appear, however, with repeated consumption of anticoagulants, their toxicity increases significantly as a result of the accumulation of poison in the body, causing disturbances in the blood coagulation system, which is accompanied by an increase in vascular permeability, hemorrhages in many internal organs and skin and subsequent death.
Small amounts of anticoagulants that are in the bait, the practical lack of taste and unpleasant odor do not cause vigilance in rodents, they are not recognized in the bait, and animals willingly and, very importantly, re-eat the poisoned bait in almost the same quantities as products without poison .
A relatively slow development of the effects of poisoning can be considered an equally important feature of anticoagulants, as a result of which conditioned-reflex connections do not form in rodents, i.e. they do not associate painful sensations with eating bait. This primarily explains the lack of alertness to these drugs. The symptoms of poisoning, judging by the behavior of the animals, are not very painful and have little or no effect on their appetite.
Currently, the following methods are widely used in the practice of disinfestation:
- Food poisoning bait - poison is mixed with a food product attractive enough for rodents.
- Liquid Poisoned Bait - The use of solutions or suspensions of poisons in water, milk and the like liquids.
- Pollination - the use of powdery poisons for pollination of exits from holes, paths and ways of moving rodents, nesting material, etc.
- Gassing - feeding rodents to the room or hole of poisons in a gaseous state.
Among all these methods, the most universal is the use of food poison baits. ABOUTetched baits can conditionally be divided by the moisture content in the food base into dry and moist, the latter being eaten much better, but deteriorating faster. In all cases, only fresh, high-quality foods are best eaten.
Rodent eatability of the food basis of poisoned baits depends to a large extent on the composition and abundance of feed in their habitat. On objects with a uniform feed base, the most preferred is the food base, which makes up for the lack of individual components of their diet. At the meat factory and in the refrigerator, animals experience a clear deficit of carbohydrates. The use of flour baits with sugar would free these objects from them. In warehouses of grain, flour, cereals, rodents feed on high-calorie feed containing most of the necessary components, but there is a lack of moisture, so liquid baits - milk, water and sugar - are the most effective. As a rule, the addition of attractant to the food base (5-10% sugar or 3% vegetable oil) significantly improves its eatability.
After determining the type of rodents and finding out their habitats, the baits are laid out in the holes of holes, bait boxes or openly. Poisoned baits are laid out in habitable, or so-called "residential burrows", i.e. into the holes and crevices that rodents use. The baits are laid out as deep as possible in the exits from the holes and crevices, put them in paper bags or "pounds".
Bait with slowly acting and accumulating in the body zoocoumarin must be laid out 3-4 days in a row or 2-3 times every other day.
The layout of poisoned baits in bait boxes is as effective as the previous method.. In addition, it is safe for others. Bait boxes should be clean, free from odors, and should not be painted. The bait is placed at the bottom of the box., They put the boxes near the rodent exit points, along their paths, which most often pass along the walls, in quiet, secluded places. 2-3 days after the bait is laid out, the boxes are checked, and if it turns out that rodents are eating the bait, then they add the same bait.
In warehouses and industrial premises, where there are few people and no pets, poisonous baits with zoocoumarin, ratindane and other low-risk rodenticides for people and pets can be opened openly. It is better to place baits in paper bags or “lumps”. Such "bumps" are left in the same places where the bait boxes are placed.
© Sergey Yeliseev
Wax briquettes and pastes - one of the forms of supply of poisoned food bait. The composition of the briquettes includes 50% paraffin, 4% vegetable oil, 3-10% rodenticide and a food base (grain or crumbs) up to 100%.
Pastes are a sticky composition based on petroleum jelly, rodenticide, attractants (vegetable oil) and talc. The ratio of these components in the paste may be different. They are used for the manufacture of poisonous coatings (exterminating sites), poisoned baits, and coating the inlets of rodent holes.
Liquid poisoned bait. Rats absorb a large amount of moisture, and therefore, for example, water is used as bait. In places where rodents do not find water, place drinking bowls with water pollinated by rodenticides. Absorbing water pollinated by poison, rats swallow rodenticide. Poisons used for pollination should not dissolve in water and be light (with a low relative density). Rodenticides, which are soluble in water, are not used in live baits, as rodents distinguish between toxic solutions and usually do not drink them. Heavy preparations (with a high relative density) are ineffective with this method of application: rats gently drink only the upper layer of water and do not take the rodenticide that is in the sediment.
Dusting. This method is based on the fact that animals passing through pollinated places stain fur, paws, and muzzle with poisonous powder. When rodents lick their outer integument, the poison enters the mouth and is then swallowed. When brushing, poison can enter the lungs. Unlike the bait method, when success is largely determined by how well fed, rodents are and how their baits are attracted, pollination is a more effective way, since the poison enters the body of both hungry and well-fed rodents. Of the rodenticides for pollination, zoocoumarin, ratindane, zinc phosphide are most suitable. Exit from holes, trails, waste bins and other places where they find droppings, bites are pollined. However, with insufficient dusting efficiency, this method leads to intense pollution of surfaces, to the spread of poison by animals and to the possibility of poison getting into food products.
Significant lesser environmental pollution is obtained when using artificial shelters - boxes with holes or tubes filled with nesting material, sprayed with poison - straw, hay, cotton, paper. Artificial shelters themselves do not always attract rodents, so it is advisable to put bait in them.
Gasification. Many gases have been tested to control rodents: sulfur dioxide, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, chlorine, chloropicrin, hydrogen cyanide, phosphorous hydrogen, ethylene oxide. All toxic gases caused the complete death of animals, provided that the animals could not escape from the poisoned zone. The time of their death in this case ranged from several minutes to several hours. But the listed gases have the same high toxicity in relation to people and other animals, which requires very high costs and efforts to ensure safety during processing. Before gasification of buildings, people are removed from them, production is stopped and all openings are carefully sealed. Gas treatment cannot be carried out if there are residential buildings and enterprises nearby. The second disadvantage of aeration is the lack of residual action after treatment.
Treated premises can be re-populated by rodents. The third drawback is the high processing cost.
Currently, gasification is used only for processing special objects: ships, aircraft, wagons, elevators, less often refrigerators. The undoubted advantage of this method is the ability of gases to instantly destroy almost all rodents in enclosed spaces and other containers with complex internal architecture, where the use of other methods is impossible or inefficient.
© ... Rachel J ...
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