Currant is a vitamin from the bush!
Currant is a berry of health! Do you know that a person’s daily need for vitamin C can be satisfied by eating only 35-40 blackcurrant berries? And about the fact that vitamin E, which is also rich in currants, is called the vitamin of youth? And also about the fact that in the currant strong phytoncides were found that kill a number of viruses, in particular the influenza virus? It turns out that in our gardens not only bushes with tasty berries, from which we cook jam, but a whole natural pharmacy.
CurrantLatin - Ribes. The genus of plants from the monotypic gooseberry family (Grossulariaceae). Includes about 150 species. Up to 50 species are common in Europe, Asia and North America, with some descending to the south of the continent along the Andes to the Strait of Magellan.
In the plain of the European part of Russia there are 3 wild species, in the Caucasus - 6, a greater number of them grows in Siberia, especially Eastern.
Currant seedlings with an open root system can be planted both in spring and autumn, but it is better to do this all the same in autumn (for the middle lane - in the first half of October). During the winter, the soil around the bushes will settle and compact, in spring the plants will start growing early and take root well. When using seedlings in containers, there are practically no restrictions on planting dates.
Usually, currant bushes are planted at a distance of 1–1.25 m. To get a crop for the 2nd – 3rd year, plants in a row can be planted somewhat denser, at a distance of 0.7–0.8 m. But the yield from the bush will be less life expectancy is slightly reduced.
Currant is moisture-loving and relatively shade-tolerant, but does not tolerate strong shading. Therefore, it is better for it to divert lowered, humidified, adequately lit and protected from the wind places (but not swampy lowlands with protruding groundwater!). The best of all are fertile light loams. Blackcurrant grows poorly on heavy acidic soils.
At the chosen place, it is necessary to level the soil so that there are no deep depressions and pits. Then it is good to dig it onto the bayonet of the shovel, carefully removing the rhizomes of perennial weeds. A planting pit with a depth of 35–40 cm and a diameter of 50–60 cm is covered at about 3/4 of the depth with fertile soil mixed with fertilizers — a compost bucket, superphosphate (150–200 g), potassium sulfate (40–60 g), or wood ash (30–40 g). The root system of the seedling should be lignified, have 3-5 skeletal roots with a length of at least 15–20 cm. The aerial part is at least one or two branches 30–40 cm long. Damaged or dried roots are shortened, the seedling is buried 6–8 cm higher root neck. Before pouring a hole, half a bucket of water is poured into it, another half bucket - into a circular hole around the landing site. And immediately mulch the surface with peat. The earth under the currant is loosened: near the root neck to a depth of 6–8 cm, 10–12 cm away from it. When mulching, moisture is better preserved, and loosening can be much less common.
In autumn, the heavy soil under the bushes is dug shallow and left lumpy for the winter to maintain a supply of moisture. If the soil is light and fairly loose, you can limit yourself to shallow loosening (up to 5–8 cm) near the bushes, and dig rows between them by 10–12 cm.
Gooseberries and currants are best planted in the fall. Such a feature.
Prepare a place for landing in advance. To do this, select a well-lit place. We dig a hole at least forty centimeters deep, add structural materials (branches, leaves, waste paper, compost, wood ash) to the bottom, add organic and mineral fertilizers. Choose a seedling with at least one long shoot and plant it in a pit at an angle of 30 degrees, and so that the tip is directed to the sunniest place. We trim the top, leaving 1-3 kidneys above the ground. Pruning stimulates the awakening and growth of sleeping kidneys. The distance between the seedlings is done at least sixty centimeters.
In autumn, of all the zero shoots that grew during the summer (let's call it the first wave), we leave the three or four of the strongest. With a sharp knife, we cut off the tops of them, which stimulates the appearance of first-order branches on them in the next season. And we put the most powerful extreme southern shoot into the groove - it will become the basis of the second wave. The cropped top with two kidneys is left above the soil.
During the summer, on the zero shoots of the first wave, branches of the first order will grow, in which in the autumn we also remove the apical growth points. Thin weak shoots of the second wave, leaving only four, and the most powerful, as last year, we bend and pin into the groove. Next year, a third wave will form from it. Berries are few.
We get a good crop on the branches of the first wave, remove the growth points on the branches of the second wave and zero shoots of the third. We bend and pin the extreme southern escape for the next generation.
We get the second crop on the branches of the first wave and the first crop on the branches of the second. In autumn, we cut out the entire bush of the first wave under the root, remove the apical growth points from the subsequent waves and bend the next shoot.
We get the second crop from the second wave and the first crop from the third. In autumn, we cut out the bush of the second wave under the root, delete the growth points on the fourth and fifth waves, and pin the next shoot. We dig up the roots of the first wave, making room for other cultures.
To create the optimum water regime, the soil should be kept in a loose, moist and weed-free state. Therefore, around the bushes, it is loosened as necessary (optimally once every 2-3 weeks), preventing the formation of crust and growth of weeds, which greatly dry the earth.
The active root system of currants is located in the upper, loose nutrient layers of the soil. In order not to damage the roots, carefully loosen it near the bushes, to a depth of not more than 6-8 cm. At a considerable distance from the bushes or between rows, loosening or digging to a depth of 10-12 cm is possible. Moisture is well preserved if the earth around the bushes is mulled with organic material (peat). In this case, it can be loosened much less frequently.
In autumn, heavy loamy soil is dug shallow under the bushes and left lumpy for the winter so that moisture is better retained, dug between the bushes and rows to a depth of 10-12 cm. If the soil is light and quite loose, you can limit yourself to shallow loosening (up to 5-8 cm) about bushes. To avoid damage to the roots, forks should be used for digging.
Currant is a rather hygrophilous culture, which is associated with its biological characteristics. A lack of moisture causes growth retardation in currant plants, and during the formation and filling of berries, their crushing and shedding. Arid weather in the post-harvest period can lead to freezing of bushes, especially in severe winters. Therefore, it is necessary to provide currants with moisture in the decisive phases of its development - during the period of intensive growth and the formation of the ovary (late May - early June), during the formation of the ovary and pouring berries (in the first half of June - the first decade of July) and after harvest (in August - September). Winter wintering is also needed, especially in dry autumn. The soil is moistened at a depth of the root layer, approximately 40-60 cm. Water consumption is 30-50 liters per 1 square. m of soil surface.
Watering, letting water through the furrows or into grooves with a depth of 10-15 cm, which is carried out around the bushes at a distance of 30-40 cm from the branches of the bush.
Abundant and regular fruiting of currants depends to a large extent on the systematic pruning of the bush. This operation causes the growth of new, strong basal shoots from the underground part of the bush (they are called zero basal shoots, or shoots of renewal). In the first 3-4 years, the ground mass grows in the bushes, 5-6 years after planting, pruning begins. 4-5 branches aged from one to four years are left on the bush. On the bushes of red currant leave 3-4 branches aged from one to five years. Pruning and shaping of the bush begin after harvesting. Currants can also be cut in late autumn and early spring.
In areas of amateur gardeners, it is better to propagate currants with lignified cuttings or horizontal and vertical layering.
Lignified cuttings for propagation are harvested as early as possible: for red currants - in late August and the first half of September, for black currants - in late September, using strong, well-developed annual shoots. The upper and lower parts with the weakest kidneys are removed. Cuttings with a length of 18-20 centimeters are cut with a secateurs. Shoots infected with a kidney mite, with round, swollen buds, are immersed in hot water at a temperature of 45–46 degrees for 15 minutes. Then they are removed and placed in cold water for 5 minutes.
Cuttings are planted in a pre-prepared and well-watered trench, at the bottom of which a layer of loose earth mixed with humus or peat is placed. The depth of planting of the handle should be such that no more than two buds are above the surface of the soil, and the distance is from 10 to 15 centimeters. The earth around the cuttings of currant is well compacted. If you need a lot of material, then at a distance of 50-60 centimeters from the first trench dig a second.
If the cuttings are planted on time, then even before the onset of constant cold weather, callus appears (the tissue that forms in the plants at the sites of damage in the form of an influx and promotes healing) and roots 0.5–2.0 centimeters long. Redcurrant cuttings should be planted as early as possible, after having stood them for two weeks in a basement in wet sand or in a refrigerator at the appropriate temperature. About a week or two before the onset of frost, the cuttings are mulched with peat and spud with earth with a layer of no more than 2-3 centimeters. The following year, early in the spring they will be unlearned. Further care consists of watering, loosening, weeding. With proper care, good seedlings grow by autumn, which they dig and use as planting material. You can plant the cuttings immediately in a permanent place, having previously prepared them, it is better to have two cuttings, so that later a stronger bush is formed faster.
Blackcurrant is well propagated by horizontal layering. For these purposes, young, most productive strong bushes are chosen. The soil under the bushes is well fertilized with humus. In spring, the bushes are thinned out, 3-4 fruiting branches are left, and old and weak ones are removed. After removal in the same year, new strong basal shoots form near the bush. The following year, in the spring, before buds open, they are laid in prepared grooves 10 cm deep and pinned with wooden studs so that the shoots are firmly in contact with the ground. Then the groove with shoot is covered with moist loose soil, and sprinkled with humus, peat, grape squeezes on top. For better growth of currant shoots, the tops of the branches are slightly shortened.
After some time, shoots appear on each branch. When they reach a height of 10-12 centimeters, after rain or watering they are sprinkled with earth mixed in half with humus.
As soon as the young shoots grow back another 10-12 centimeters, after 2-3 weeks the hilling is repeated. During the summer, as needed, the soil is watered, loosened and weeds removed. In moist warm soil on the lower part of young growing shoots sprinkled with earth, roots form. By autumn, sprouted shoots have a good root system. At this time, the cuttings are dug up, cutting off the rooted branches at the base of the bush, divide them into parts so that each cut has roots and shoots. Thus obtained seedlings are used as planting material. In order not to reduce the yield of berries from the bush, layers are grown less. From a young fruiting bush, you can get an average of 25-30 seedlings.
When propagated by vertical layers, the most powerful bushes are selected. In the spring they are cut short. After pruning, young shoots grow, which at the end of May spud up to half with loose moist soil. It is better to mix the earth with humus or peat. After two weeks, the hilling is repeated and after about the same time the third hilling is carried out, in which the mound of the earth should be at least 25 centimeters high. This mound is mulched. During the summer, the earth is watered, loosened, weeds removed and, if necessary, mulched again.
In the fall, the earth around the bushes is raked, rooted shoots are cut off and used for planting in a permanent place. Weak rooted shoots are planted for growing.
Diseases and Pests
Currant glasshouse damages the shoots of currant and gooseberry. If you see a butterfly with glassy-transparent wings, at the ends of which there are transverse stripes and an orange border, then this is it.
They fly out in May-June and lay one testicle near the kidneys. Hatching caterpillars through the kidneys penetrate the shoots, feed on wood and core, make moves inside. Damaged shoots dry out and fade. They hibernate at the stage of adult caterpillars inside shoots, and pupate there.
Glassware signs: short growth, weak flowering, berries begin to ripen earlier If your currant bushes dry out at the end of flowering and at the beginning of fruit ripening, this should alert you. Cutting off the shoot, there you can find white with a black head caterpillars. All drying branches need to be cut and burned.
Kidney tick causes the growth and deformation of the currant buds. Such buds swell, do not bloom and dry out. These mites crawl out of the soil when the air temperature reaches 12 degrees and enter the kidney (up to 1 thousand in the kidney). In addition, the tick transmits a flower double flower virus; there will also be no fruit in this case. It is necessary to cut and burn infected branches, mulch the bushes with a thick layer of moss, grass or other mulching material to prevent the ticks from coming out.
The aphid virus spreads the flowers also. She hibernates near the kidneys and the most important thing here is not to miss their mass reproduction. As soon as the young shoots begin to grow, carefully inspect the underside of the leaf and when a small fly appears (this is the uterus-settler), rinse with a soap solution of the top. After coarsening the tissues, the aphids will no longer encroach on them (she loves only young and delicate tissues).
Ants, the main settlers of aphids, can be scared away by laying mint shoots in anthills or by constructing hunting belts with non-drying glue on tree trunks.
Powdery mildew also appears only on young tissues. Here, first of all, you need to rinse with soapy water (a piece of laundry soap on a bucket) or soap-and-ash solution (1 kg of pure wood ash is stirred in 10 l of slightly heated water, insisted for 7-10 days, stirring occasionally. 40-50 g are added before spraying. laundry soap). You can just sprinkle bushes of diseased raspberries, gooseberries, black currants with ash. And here’s another recipe: in the middle of the bush in the spring they put fresh manure, ammonia from it evaporates and protects from the causative agent of powdery mildew (for reliability, spray it with slurry as well - pour over-rotted manure with water (1: 3), insist 3 days, dilute with water (1: 3)).
You can spray the bushes with hay infusion (1 kg of hay is poured with 3 liters of water and insisted for 3 days, then filtered and diluted with 1 liter of infusion 3 liters of water, spraying is repeated after 5-7 days several times). Fitosporin also helps, a drug based on a bacterial culture that also protects against other fungal and bacterial diseases.
Another popular method: spraying with whey and bread kvass (1/3 of a three-liter can of rye bread is filled with water + 3 tablespoons of sugar. 1 liter of such kvass is bred in a bucket of water and used against powdery mildew).
The mushroom, the causative agent of powdery mildew, hibernates on fallen berries, leaves and sprouted shoots, so they must be removed. You will also have to cut young shoots affected by powdery mildew in early spring.
Gooseberries, red and black currants are annoyed by gooseberry moth. Yellowish-white, then grayish-green caterpillars up to 11 mm long eat up the flesh and seeds of the berries, which prematurely redden. Often several leaves and berries become entangled in a web. Butterflies with dark gray front wings and transverse dark brown streaks fly out before flowering gooseberries and currants and lay their eggs inside the flowers.
Caterpillars leave in autumn for pupation, so mulching under the bushes with a thick layer of mulch (at least 12 cm) helps here - in spring they will not come out of the soil. You also need to destroy diseased berries and spray the plants with a decoction of stepsons and tops of tomatoes (boil 4 kg of tops in 1 bucket of water over low heat, strain and add 40 g of soap to 3 liters of broth).
We look forward to hearing your advice on growing currants!