Wild strawberries - we call it strawberries
Cultivated strawberry garden, or pineapple fragmentaria (Fragaria ananassa) is often incorrectly called strawberries, which refers to another botanical species.
Since we are all used to calling strawberries strawberries - strawberries, in the article I will call them strawberries.
Strawberries - a great antiseptic and anti-inflammatory. Strawberries inhibit the development of the flu virus. The presence of iodine in the composition of strawberries compensates for its lack in everyday food and drinking water. Strawberries have a hypoglycemic effect. Therefore, it is included in the diet of people with diabetes.
The salicylic acid found in this unique berry helps reduce joint pain!
Strawberries make up for iron deficiency in anemia. 200 g of fresh strawberries will contain: 60 calories, 4.6 g of fiber, 0 g of fat, 1.2 g of protein, 14 g of carbohydrates, 28 mg of calcium, 0.8 mg of iron, 20 mg of magnesium, 38 mg of phosphorus, 54 mg of potassium, 1.4 mg of selenium, 113.4 mg Vitamin C, 35.4 μg Folic Acid, 54 IU Vitamin A.
Strawberry masks dry well and heal acne, narrow pores. The fragrant juice of fresh strawberries is the best lotion! This is a miracle cure for removing age spots and freckles.
Strawberries are obviously rich in healing properties, but they are as easy to lose as they are. Therefore, the storage of strawberries is more relevant than ever!
First, it’s important to remember that strawberries cannot be stored in the refrigerator for a long time. The fact is that strawberries, which can very well be grown with nitrates, turn into an aqueous, carcinogenic mess. In principle, it is better not to store strawberries at all. Experts advise eating it within two days after harvesting. If, however, there is a need for storing berries in the refrigerator, then do not wash the strawberries before storage.
Strawberries (berries) are as healthy as they are tremulous, so be attentive to her “peace of mind”!
© ~ MVI ~
Garden strawberries appeared in the XVIII century as a result of spontaneous pollination of two American species - Chilean and Virgin. From the resulting hybrid, all modern varieties went.
Strawberries - Super Intensive culture. If you plant it in early autumn, then next summer you can already pick berries. But although strawberries live for about twenty years, it gives maximum yields only for the first three years. With each next summer, everything will decrease and worsen: the number of berries, their taste and size. Only pests such as strawberry mites will become larger.
There are many varieties of strawberries. And thanks to the efforts of breeders, their number is increasing. Here are just a few. First of all, these are early varieties ‘Alpha’ (sweet, with sourness), dessert ‘Vega’ and ‘Holiday’, sweet and sour ‘Talka’. The medium early ones include large universal berries ‘Vityaz’, ‘Divnaya’, ‘Dukat’. There are most of all medium grades: large ‘Kokinskaya selected’, thick dessert ‘Lakomaya’, large dessert ‘Troitskaya’, ‘Fireworks’, ‘Relay’. Varieties ‘Bounty’, ‘Red Gontlet’, ‘Zenit’ are medium late, and ‘Borovitskaya’ is a very late variety.
Repairing varieties are especially popular today - that is, those that produce crops several times a season. In addition, such varieties are very decorative - throughout the season strewn with flowers and berries. And if you plant several bushes in a container or basket, then effectively dropping mustaches will create ampel cascades. But keep in mind: in the middle lane, such plantings are wintered only in the conservatory or on the insulated balcony.
On seedlings should be three to four healthy green leaves. Spots should not be afraid - they may well form due to drying out of the leaf during transplantation. The main thing is that the "heart" (the central kidney, the leaf that has not yet blossomed) is whole. Experts recommend buying seedlings with a closed root system - then the plant will definitely take root.
© * clairity *
There are many varieties of strawberries. And thanks to the efforts of breeders, their number is increasing.
- Relay race - medium-ripening variety, very resistant to disease. Crops bring high. The berries are large: the first - up to 35 g, the average weight - 16 g.
- Ducat - dessert variety of medium ripening. Harvest, quite resistant to disease and drought. The berries are large: the first - up to 30 g, the average weight - 13–18 g.
- Trinity - dessert variety of medium ripening. Winter-hardy, quite resistant to disease. Crops are high. The berries are large: the first - 22 g, the average weight - 11 g.
- Zemklunika - a unique, very fragrant, mid-early variety. Obtained by crossing garden strawberries and wild strawberries. The maximum yield is only in hot summers with intensive watering. With a lack of heat and sun, grains turn black in the berries.
- Borovitskaya - One of the varieties of a very late ripening period. The bush is powerful, erect, vigorous. The berries are large, at the first harvest they reach 35 g, the correct blunt-conical shape. Peel from bright red to orange red. The pulp is dense, light red, aromatic, the taste is sweet and sour. Frost resistance is high. Resistant to a complex of diseases.
- Corrado (Bouquet) - medium early variety, mid-sized bush, upright. The berries are large, regular stupidly conical, with dark red shiny skin. The pulp of the fruit is tender, dense, the taste is sweet and sour. Winter hardiness is high. Very tasty in fresh form and are great for freezing. The variety is resistant to a complex of diseases.
- Stranger - a variety of early ripening, bush vigorous, sprawling. The berries are large, rounded conical, cut from the bottom, with a dark red skin. The pulp is dense, dark red, the taste is sweet and sour, aromatic. Tasty fresh, very well stored. The variety is hardy, relatively resistant to fungal diseases.
- Queen Elizabeth II - the most popular repair grade. If grown on a warm balcony or in the winter garden, then the crop can be removed before the New Year. The berries are very large, dessert flavor, with dense pulp, universal purpose. Fruits from April to November.
- Yellow miracle - productive and winter-hardy variety. Fruits in June and until the frost. The berries are small, weighing 8 g, with the aroma of wild strawberries. The skin is yellow. The pulp is white, not very dense.
- Pink panda - An exceptionally decorative variety with unusual bright pink flowers. This strawberry does not produce fruits.
- Baron Solemacher - Alpine wild strawberry, which gives small sweet fruits all summer. It tolerates partial shade and takes root even on the windowsills of city apartments.
Severely damaged by frost:
Powdery mildew resistant varieties:
Varieties most resistant to brown and white leaf spot:
- A shelf
Wilt tolerant varieties (varieties less susceptible to leaf wilt disease):
Strawberries grow well on a flat surface, on a surface with a slope facing southpadu. You can’t grow strawberries on steep slopes, also in lowlands where cold air accumulates, from which the crop is received late, and the number of diseases increases.
Unsatisfactory results are also obtained on the steep southern slope, where snow quickly melts and, as a result, the strawberries are exposed. Strawberry is moisture-loving, but does not tolerate waterlogging. The place where strawberries grow should be protected from the winds, since part of the root system freezes at a temperature of 10-12 ° C of cold, therefore it is better to winter under a cover of snow with a layer of at least 20-25 cm.
Strawberries must not be grown for more than 4 years in one place (2-3 years are good), since various infections and fungal diseases accumulate, such as: wilt, gray and white rot and other diseases.
Strawberries propagated by seedlings (sockets). Seedlings are either bought or grown on their own plantings, which is grown on the shoots (mustache) of uterine bushes. The best outlets are those that are closer to the mother bush. No more than three outlets are left on the shoot, up to 5 outlets can be left, but in this case the last two will be less developed than the first three. Up to 5 shoots are usually left on one uterine bush, each with three rosettes. From one bush receive 15 pieces of well-developed outlets.
As rosettes appear on the shoot, they are fixed in moist soil, i.e. small roots deepen into the soil. You can immediately plant the sockets in small nutrient pots, while the pots are deepened into the soil.
You can’t grow rosettes and berries on the uterine bushes, therefore, the first peduncles that appear are removed. The best seedlings are obtained from the bushes of the second year of fruiting.
Soils are better slightly acidic pH = 5-6, mainly loamy and sandy loamy soil containing humus and nutrients. Clayy cold soils without cultivation are not suitable. On moist soils with closely spaced groundwater, strawberries should be grown in high beds. On sandy soils, strawberries, as a rule, give a low yield with small berries, since there is always a lack of moisture and strawberry plants on these soils feel oppressed. Therefore, under planting strawberries, the garden is cultivated 1-2 months before planting.
Ridges in low places, as well as where groundwater comes close, make at least 30-35 cm high. In dry places, ridges are not high, 8-10 cm, without ridges. The width of the ridges is 90-100 cm. A bucket of dung humus and a bucket of peat are added per loamy soil to a loamy soil, and 3-4 kg of sawdust are added to a sandy bucket of soddy soil, peat and humus.
On peat soils add 10 kg of sand and 6 kg of dung humus, and on clay soils 12 kg of sand, 10 kg of dung humus or compost and 5 kg of half-ripened sawdust.
Of mineral fertilizers per square meter, add two tablespoons of nitrophosphate or ROST-1. If we make the beds in the autumn, then we additionally add two glasses of dolomite flour and one glass of wood ash, and if the beds are cooked in the spring, in addition to nitrophoska or ROST-1, one half-liter can (0.5 l) of wood ash is added.
We do not add fertilizers with chlorine under strawberries, since chlorine is dangerous for strawberries.
Dolomite flour or other calcareous materials can be applied under strawberries only in autumn and not in spring, since dolomite flour or fluffy lime contains calcium, which negatively affects the development of plants, if they are introduced immediately before planting.
The bed is dug up to a depth of 30-35 cm, while peeling all rhizomes, weeds (wheatgrass, throat, woodlice), and also remove the larvae of the May beetle and yellow wireworm larvae. After digging, we straighten the bed and sprinkle with a small layer (up to 2 cm) coarse-grained sand, otherwise slugs, snails, centipedes will develop a lot, since these pests quickly develop on moist humus soils, and the sand dries quickly, heats up and this negatively affects them .
Rows prepared for planting strawberries in autumn or spring can be used before planting strawberries for growing the following crops: all leafy salads, spinach, legumes, dill, cabbage, kohlrabi. Before planting strawberries, the bed must be loosened with a pitchfork, leveled, easily tamped, poured at the rate of 10 liters per square meter and treated with copper sulfate solution (two tablespoons of copper sulfate are diluted with 10 liters of water) and watering the bed at the rate of 1.0-1, 5 liters per square meter.
The best landing date is summer, from July 20-25. Planting is done in cloudy weather or in the evening, so that plants can acclimatize during the night. Seedlings are planted (sockets) with 3-4 leaves, a well-developed heart and root system. Seedlings are separated from the uterine bush and dug up with a small moist lump of earth and immediately planted in the garden. If seedlings are acquired from the outside, it is washed along with the root system in the next solution. Take three tablespoons of table salt and one teaspoon of copper sulfate and diluted in 10 liters of water and immersed in this solution of the outlet for 10-15 minutes. Then they are removed and rinsed with clean water and the seedlings will be with clean washed roots.
After these treatments, seedlings are planted on a bed. When planting any strawberry seedlings, you can’t deepen or raise the heart, otherwise in one case it rots, and in the other, naturally, it dries.
When planting, you need to spread the roots well, make sure that they do not bend. Or like this: a mound is poured in a hole and seedlings are placed on it, carefully spread roots on it and sprinkled with moist earth.
After planting, the strawberry outlet immediately needs to be easily poured from a small watering can by sprinkling.
Properly planted seedlings will form a good bush by winter, which will contribute to normal overwintering. The next year (summer) from these bushes we get a good harvest - strawberries of the first year of fruiting.
For early and medium early varieties, planting in the first year is made thickened, i.e. between rows 60 cm, in a row 15 cm. With such a thickened planting in the first year of fruiting, strawberries give a high yield due to thickening. As soon as the last harvest of berries is over, every second bush is removed, and the bush from the bush will remain on the bed in a row with a distance of 30 cm.
For late varieties, the planting scheme in the first year is between rows 60 cm, in a row - plant from plant 20 cm. After collecting the first summer crop, every second is removed, and the plant will remain in a row from the plant at a distance of 40 cm.
In the first year of fruiting, strawberries give a good harvest due to thickening in the rows. In the second year of fruiting, strawberry yield is considered the highest and with large berries. In the third year, the yield does not decrease, but the berries are slightly smaller in size. In the fourth year there is a decline in yield and the berries are crushed. Therefore, after the third year of fruiting, strawberries are removed, i.e. dig up and burn the whole aerial and root system.
The seedlings planted on the bed are covered with loose pieces of paper for the first two days, then every day, 2-3 times a day, they are watered from a watering can by sprinkling 2-3 liters per square meter for a week, so that the seedlings are well received. In the future, watered once every 6-7 days, in hot weather, watered more often, after 4-5 days at the rate of 8-10 liters per square meter. If single flower stalks appear on plants, they are removed.
During August, do 2-3 loosening of the soil to a depth of 5 cm. In October, a bed with plantings is mulched (sprinkled) with a layer of up to 5-6 cm better with peat or wood sawdust. In November, cover with sprigs of spruce branches to keep snow on the bed. At the first frosts (minus 8-10 ° С), strawberries should be covered with a layer of snow up to 10-12 cm.
© Per Ola Wiberg ~ OFF, Computer crash